or the modern name San Shou, means literally in translation “hand freedom“ (unrestrainedly by given set of techniques) and it concerns the usage of all knowledge of martial arts of the individual in the practical full-contact fight. Sanda is the controlled fight by rules between two fighters in the same weight category and is controlled by judges. The fight takes a place on the platform "Lei Tai" (boxing ring without ropes), when two opponents are protected with required protectors. The fight lasts 2 times two minutes of the net time and there is 1 minute break between rounds. In the year 1997 Sanda became a professional sport, when fighters use only basic protectors (gloves, suspensor and teeth protector) and fights take place in the boxing ring.
The difference between Sanda and other full contact sports, as e.g. kickbox, is that Sanda rules allow to use techniques, which are prohibited somewhere else. Besides classical techniques as are hits and kicks Sanda includes holds, throws, throwdowns from the platform and jointbars. These techniques give the Sanda fight a diversity, drive and an approach to a real fight. Of course as other contact fights Sanda also has its rules, between which belong allowed and not allowed techniques and spots of the opponent´s hit. The rules are basically same in all countries but they are only slightly modified according to possibilities of the federation of the country, where the competition is held. The Chinese Federation IWUF (International Wushu Federation) is considered as the largest and most expanded federation that issued the rules, according to which there are also governed rules of the Wu shu Federation in the Czech Republic with a small modification nowadays. Further representative is the Kuoshu Federation I.C.K.F (International Chinese Kuoshu Federation), which controls the competitions in Taiwan.
At the beginning of 20th century Sanda did not have any rules and therefore fights were sometimes ended with serious injuries or even with death. The first official rules and therefore also changes in the own organisation of competitions were in the year 1960. At that time masters established the rules, which guaranteed the safety of competitors and on which there was built a determinated set of rules for competitions. Since the year 1991, when the first international championship took place, Sanda has been regularly an integral part of the Czech and worldwide competitions, whose participants go on the platform to compare their experiences with the others.